View single post by Joe Kelley
 Posted: Mon Apr 2nd, 2018 05:49 pm
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Joe Kelley


Joined: Mon Nov 21st, 2005
Location: California USA
Posts: 6369
It is improper to claim that the Federation is a single Republic, if words are to be employed with one, original, meaning. A Federation can federate any type of human activity, including a Federation of Organized Crime Families.

A Federation of Republics, on the other hand, is a voluntary association for those Republics, and therefore that type of Federation cannot be a Federation of Organized Crime Families.

Federation = voluntary association as in:

"That the question was not whether, by a declaration of independence, we should make ourselves what we are not; but whether we should declare a fact which already exists:

"That, as to the people or Parliament of England, we had always been independent of them, their restraints on our trade deriving efficacy from our acquiescence only, and not from any rights they possessed of imposing them; and that, so far, our connection had been federal only, and was now dissolved by the commencement of hostilities:

"That, as to the king, we had been bound to him by allegiance, but that this bond was now dissolved by his assent to the late act of Parliament, by which he declares us out of his protection, and by his levying war on us —a fact which had long ago proved us out of his protection, it being a certain position in law, that allegiance and protection are reciprocal, the one ceasing when the other is withdrawn:"

That is a meaning for the word Federation offered in the First Congress of the forming United (Federated) States: where the States are Republics.

Republic = The Public Thing as in:

"What is called a republic is not any particular form of government. It is wholly characteristical of the purport, matter or object for which government ought to be instituted, and on which it is to be employed, Res-Publica, the public affairs, or the public good; or, literally translated, the public thing. It is a word of a good original, referring to what ought to be the character and business of government; and in this sense it is naturally opposed to the word monarchy, which has a base original signification. It means arbitrary power in an individual person; in the exercise of which, himself, and not the res-publica, is the object.

"Every government that does not act on the principle of a Republic, or in other words, that does not make the res-publica its whole and sole object, is not a good government. Republican government is no other than government established and conducted for the interest of the public, as well individually as collectively. It is not necessarily connected with any particular form, but it most naturally associates with the representative form, as being best calculated to secure the end for which a nation is at the expense of supporting it."

That is the meaning of a Republic offered by Thomas Paine in Rights of Man (page 176).

The original Federation was a voluntary association for the mutual defense of the original Republics.

Article III.

"The said States hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defense, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to assist each other, against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretense whatever."

That is a deal made by Republics, for Republics, which is not a deal (contract) made by individual (sovereign) people, for people. It can be understood that people, in each individual Republic, had to exist in order for an Individual, Independent, Sovereign, State to act on behalf of the people in each Republic (the public thing), but the Federation is a Federation of Republics, and only by inference, or construction, is the Federation turned into, or said to be, a Republic at the same time the Federation is a Federation. Why confuse people with words?